September 02, 2015

"Bells of Freedom" and "Five Champions of Freedom" open the Second Crusade for Freedom, Sept. 3, 1951

General Lucius D. Clay
The second national effort of the Crusade for Freedom in support of Radio Free Europe officially began Labor Day, Monday, September 3, 1951. General Lucius D. Clay remained as the Crusade’s National Chairman and Harold E. Stassen, president of the University of Pennsylvania, was 1951 “Drive Chairman.” 
Freedom Scroll

The announced nation-wide goal was $3,500,000 in public contributions and 25 million signatures on the Freedom Scroll. 

The fund-raising campaign commenced with a nationwide 15 minute radio program "Bells of Freedom" that was carried by the Columbia Broadcasting System CBS) radio network from 5:30 to 5:45 p.m. The radio program featured recorded messages from "Five Champions of Freedom": 

·      General Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was in Paris, 
·      Crusade National Chairman Lucius D. Clay, 
·      1951 Crusade Drive Chairman Harold E. Stassen, 
·      U.S. Ambassador Walter S. Gifford in London, and 
·      Mayor Ernst Reuter in Berlin. 

During the program five bells could be heard:

  1. Liberty Bell in Philadelphia;
  2. Bell of Notre Dame cathedral in Paris;
  3. Big Ben in London;
  4. World Freedom Bell in Berlin; and
  5. Chong-No bell in Seoul, Korea.
The bells "strove to emphasize the immemorial yearning for freedom in a world where millions were being denied it."

General Clay in New York said, in part, "The goal of our 1951 Crusade is the addition of at least two more powerful transmitters to Radio Free Europe ... and that we will also be able to establish a freedom station in Asia to penetrate the Iron Curtain in the Far East". 

Listen to the full Clay statement here: 


General Eisenhower said, in part,

They (citizens of Iron Curtain countries) hunger also for truth, to sustain them under the crushing weight of godless dictatorship. You can help bring them the truth though the Crusade for Freedom. I trust that every American will support wholeheartedly its campaign to use truth as our most powerful weapon against Communistic domination of the world.

Harold E. Stassen, speaking from Philadelphia, said, "During this month of September, the Crusade for Freedom once again offers every citizen an opportunity to take a personal part in tearing down the Iron Curtain. It offers all of us an opportunity to help truth fight communism throughout the world."

Ambassador Gifford said, "Community of purpose in ideological warfare was as important as it was in a shooting war."

Mayor Reuter said that the Freedom Bell "has become a symbol of resistance for our people. Each day at noon it rings out over the city. To those who live in the Soviet zone it means renewed hope and courage."

The broadcast, narrated by famed television and radio journalist Edward R. Murrow, was also carried by Radio Free Europe. 

Americans who "enrolled" in the Crusade for Freedom received in return a lapel button with the Freedom Bell symbol with the words Crusade for Freedom and a sticker, "signifying their part in this critical battle against Communism," which could be displayed at home or on automobile windows.

August 18, 2015

Romania's August 18, 1980, Action Plan: sowing Murder, Mayhem and Terror against Radio Free Europe and it's staff

35 years ago today, 18 August 1980, the Romanian Ministry of Interior approved Action Plan Nr. 225/f.9/0025323 against Radio Free Europe and its staff. This Action Plan has the only known direct reference to the planning of the eventual bombing of RFER/RL by Carlos the Jackal six months later. 

Here are some excerpts:

·      Training collaborator Danciu from Romania, electronic engineer, in order to send him abroad. He will infiltrate RFE with the mission to destroy the radio's facilities and buildings. Deadline 15 Feb., 1981.

·      Informant Barta Geza's reactivation (Germany), mechanic, who repairs cars for some RFE employees; his mission will be to manipulate the cars so that they may become susceptible to making accidents. Deadline: 31 Dec. 1980.

·      By using informants: Riva, Protopopescu, Kraus, Barta Geza and others we will analyze the radio's buildings and facilities, its security system, its vulnerable places in order to find the appropriate means to damage and destroy the buildings and facilities by detonating explosives and committing arson. On the other hand, we will select the persons apt to perform these special actions. By Dec. 31, 1980 we will have tabled the proposals concerning the operation.

·      Identification of the employees' homes, examination of possibilities to break into them in order to place containers with explosives, letters and bogus parcels which would cause explosions. For each case there will be a special variant of action. Permanent task. 

·      Identification of the garages where RFE employees park their cars or have their cars repaired. The aim: placing explosives or manipulating the cars so that they may cause serious accidents. Permanent task.

·      Identification of restaurants and brothels frequented by RFE employees, where we could frame a scandal during which RFE employees may get molested. Permanent task.

For the full text of this Action Plan, see Appendix B of my book Cold War Radio.

See my book Securitatea contra Europa Libera for the full Romanian language text of the Action Plan.

May 19, 2015

U.S. Russian Language Television Program "Current Time" Expanding in Countries bordering Russia

The more things change, the more they remain the same. Here is the latest press release from the Broadcasting Board of Governors about U.S. television broadcasting, including programs of RFE/RL, to Russian speakers in countries bordering Russia.

Current Times Logo

Current Time Expanding In Eastern Europe

WASHINGTON (May 19, 2015) — Current Time, a TV news program for Russian-speaking audiences in countries bordering Russia, launched its new weekend edition with shows affording viewers a fresh alternative to Russian-controlled TV.

Voice of America (VOA) and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) share the mic on Current Time’s daily show Monday through Friday, and now will serve up weekend programs, with VOA hosting Current Time Week In Review (Настоящее время. Итоги) on Saturdays and RFE/RL taking charge of the Sunday program, Current Time This Week (Настоящее время. Неделя).

“We are expanding our efforts to bring independent, factual and compelling reporting to audiences that have little alternative to official Russian media,” said Nenad Pejic, RFE/RL Editor-in-Chief.

“The balanced and responsible discussion on Current Time is in marked contrast to the Kremlin’s aggressive media empire that denies an outlet for opposition alternatives and public debate,” added VOA Director David Ensor.

“For Moscow it is very important now to keep the victorious posture,” Dmitry Oreshkin told VOA’s Yulia Savchenko, host of the Saturday edition of Current Time.  Oreshkin heads an independent Moscow-based political research group.  “The Russian propaganda narrative is that America got scared of us,” he said. Other highlights from the inaugural Saturday program included coverage of the Kerry-Lavrov talks in Sochi, the issue of Ukraine’s future in NATO, and the latest diplomatic moves between Russia and China.

The first Sunday program, anchored by RFE/RL’s Sergey Dorofeyev, looked at Boris Nemtsov’s posthumously published report on Russian military involvement in Ukraine, the tenth anniversary of the Andijon massacre in Uzbekistan, and the trial of Nadya Savchenko in Moscow. The program included an exclusive interview with the Deputy Chief of Staff Colonel Valentin Fedichev of Ukraine’s Anti-Terrorist Operation, who noted that, ”Ukraine is facing well-organized Russian military aggression in the East.”

“With Current Time, our networks are offering audiences professional, independent journalism that they cannot get elsewhere. This includes reporting from the front lines, but also regional and global issues that receive little coverage on official channels,” said BBG Interim CEO and Director André Mendes.

Current Time is carried by more than 10 public and private affiliate channels in Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, and Ukraine, and is available to Russian speakers everywhere on digital platforms, including social media. Drawing on a network of reporters in the region, across Russia, and in European capitals and the U.S., it presents a daily, 30-minute mix of live news coverage, interviews, original features, and political satire. The show is one part of the U.S. government’s efforts to respond to Russian propaganda in the region.

May 15, 2015

RFE/RL Contributor Jail Sentence Extended in Azerbaijan; Shades of the Cold War

The case below could have been written at the height of the Cold War.  As I wrote in my December 14, 2014, blog posting Lessons Leanred from the Cold War: "In my opinion, if programming/information is perceived by the regime to be interfering in its internal politics, and thus a threat to the regime's existence, there is a good probability that the government/secret services would try to affect programming/information in three separate and distinct phases:

Direct Action against staff 
  •  Coercion, i.e. Threats and Intimidation
  •  Blackmail,
  •  Physical attack, kidnapping, murder...."

Below is reposted from the RFE/RL site:

Azeri Journalist's Jail Sentence Extended on Eve of European Games

(WASHINGTON - May 15, 2015An Azeri court ruled on May 14 to extend the imprisonment of Khadija Ismayilova, an investigative journalist and RFE/RL contributor who was jailed last December in what is widely viewed as an act of retribution by Azeri authorities for exposing corruption linked to the country’s ruling family.

“We’re profoundly disappointed. Her imprisonment has nothing to do with any wrongdoing or law, it is about silencing Khadija and RFE/RL, by any means necessary, period,” said RFE/RL Editor in Chief Nenad Pejic.

The new ruling continues her detention until August 24.

Ismayilova was arrested on December 5 and initially charged with inciting a man to attempt suicide. The man later withdrew the accusation, but authorities leveled new charges against Ismayilova in February alleging tax evasion, illegal business activities, and abuse of power.

The latter charges derive from a broad-based attack against RFE/RL that the government launched last December. Authorities labeled RFE/RL journalists as "spies," raided and closed the company's Baku bureau, interrogated over 25 of its staff members and banned several from traveling outside the country, terminated the bureau’s lease, and recently froze the bank accounts of several free-lancers, preventing them from being paid.

Pejic said, “We will not let this attack on us and our people and RFE/RL families pass with impunity,” and indicated that the company is taking all steps to defend its rights and interests against the government's actions.

Ismayilova received the PEN American Center’s prestigious Barbara Goldsmith Freedom to Write Award on May 5 for her “hard-hitting investigations.” 
On the eve of the first European Games, which Baku will host in June, a group of prominent writers and editors have written to International Olympic Committee President Thomas Bach urging him to demand Ismayilova's release and condemn human rights abuses in Azerbaijan.

April 11, 2015

Jan Mekota (1931 - 2015) RIP

Jan Měkota (born Jan Douba), one of the first employess of Radio Free Europe as an announcer and then editor, died of a long illness on April 10, 2015, in Munich, Germany. Here is his short but interesting biography as translated from Czech Radio: 

"Jan Douba was born April 11,1931 in Nova Pace, Czechoslovakia. He attended a commercial academy, but did not complete his study because at the age of eighteen, just before graduation, he escaped from Czechoslovakia in 1949 to the American occupation zone.

For three days, he was interrogated by American intelligence agency CIC, which examined the reasons that led him to escape Czechoslovakia. 

Then Jan Douba was sent by train to a refugee camp in Munich. After the establishment of the Czech refugee camp near Ludwigsburg, he was moved there. He spent nearly two years in Ludwigsburg and, together with other Czech emigrants, founded Masaryk University College, where he taught academics among Czech emigrants.

In 1951, Jan was offered an Australian visa, but he refused, and thus remained without citizenship. For this reason, he was subsequently transferred to the German camp at Nuremberg. Here auditioned for the emerging Radio Free Europe and met with Paul Tigrid. Given that he has passed the test voice, he was given for the position announcer.

May 1, 1951, Jan Douba, under the pseudonym Jan Měkota, became the youngest staffer of the newly established radio. His earliest work was in RFE newsroom. From 1952 to 1960, he then worked in Lisbon, where Radio Free Europe broadcast on shortwave.

He returned to Munich after eight years because of his desire to do a musical show, which had become very popular. In his turn, he interviewed, for example Sophia Loren, Brigitte Bardot, The Beatles, Rolling Stones, Louis Armstrong. and many other famous artists."

At left is a photo of Jan Mekota and Veleria Kaiml of RFE's Czechoslovak broadcast service interviewing jazz great Dave Brubeck in October 1964. 

Both photos courtesy of the RFE/RL Collection, Hoover Institution, Stanford, California.

March 24, 2015

Book of Interest: "Transnational Anti-Communism and the Cold War: Agents, Activities, and Networks"

Below is a breakdown of a recently published book of interest that adds considerably to Cold War historiography and deserves to be on the recommended list of books devoted to the Cold War. Chapter 6 has a short summary of the Free Europe Committee and Radio Free Europe.

Transnational Anti-Communism and the Cold War:
Agents, Activities, and Networks

Edited by Luc van Dongen, Stephanie Roulin, Giles Scott-Smith

Synopsis provided by publisher:

How was anti-communism organized in the West? Was it all run by the CIA? The book covers the aims, arguments and associations of a range of transnational anti-communist activists during the Cold War. While the CIA were obviously important, other motives, interests and financial sources were available. The contributors of this volume open up new fields of research to explore how far anti-communism was actually planned, coordinated and structured across Western nations. By taking a transnational approach, the book moves beyond simply reducing anti-communist activities to the interests of governments and instead focuses on the role of individuals and private networks, how they organized themselves and how they pursued their own interests. 

While Cold Warriors in both the US and Europe called for an anti-communist 'crusade', various factors – geopolitical interests, elitist prejudices, ideological divisions, religious beliefs – were influential in fuelling activism. This volume demonstrates the complex array of forces, factions and frictions that were active during the Cold War, and shows that Western anti-communism, despite its apparently straightforward goal to oppose Soviet power, moved along many different paths simultaneously.

Table of Contents

Introduction (Luc van Dongen, Stéphanie Roulin, Giles Scott-Smith)

1. The American Society of African Culture: The CIA and Transnational Networks among African Diaspora Intellectuals; Hugh Wilford
2. The American Federation of Labor and the Nordic Non-Communist Left; Dino Knudsen
3. 'Brother Tronchet': A Swiss Trade Union Leader within the American Sphere of Influence; Luc van Dongen
4. 'Not an Ugly American': Sal Tas, a Dutch Reporter as Agent of the West in Africa; Tity de Vries

5. Paix et Liberté: The Formative Transnational Anti-Communist Network; Bernard Ludwig
6. Gathering the Exiles: The Assembly of Captive European Nations; Martin Nekola
7. The Formation and Mutations of the World Anti-Communist League; Pierre Abramovici
8. The Necessity of Going Transnational: The Role of Interdoc; Giles Scott-Smith
9. Brian Crozier and the Institute for the Study of Conflict; Jeff Michaels
10. Global Crusade against Communism: The Cercle during the 'Second Cold War'; Adrian Hänni

11. The Sovietology of Józef M. Bocheński: Transnational Activism from Switzerland, 1955-1965; Matthieu Gillabert
12. Suzanne Labin: An Atlanticist Anti-Communist Professional; Olivier Dard
13. The Mont Pelerin Society and the Rise of the Postwar Neoliberal Counter-Establishment; Niels Bjerre-Poulsen
14. Better Dead than Red: Wilhelm Röpke, a Neoliberal Anti-Communist; Jean Solchany

15. Transnational Anti-Communist Fundamentalism: The International Council of Christian Churches; Markku Ruotsila
16. A Christian Kominform? The Comité International de Défense de la Civilisation Chrétienne; Johannes Grossmann
17. Bible Smuggling and Human Rights in the Soviet Bloc During the Cold War; Bent Boel

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillian, Transnational History Series

Format: Hardcover, Ebook (EPUB), Ebook (PDF)

March 03, 2015

The Jungle of Secret Services, Disinformation, and Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty

Last year, the German Historical institute (GHI) in Washington, DC, published Supplement 9 to its bi-annual Bulletin (52) with the title: "The Stasi at Home and Abroad: Domestic Order and Foreign Intelligence." This was a product of a 2010 workshop of the Woodrow Wilson Center's Cold War international History Project and the GHI.

The third part of Supplement 9 deals with the foreign intelligence service of the DDR: The Hauptverwaltung A (HV A). It is here that we read about Dr. Emil Hoffmann and his connection to the disinformation campaigns of the Soviet Union and East European intelligence services against Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty in the 1970s: 

Douglas Selvage looks at tradition in a very different way from the Stasi officers. In his article “SA-CIA-HV A: Dr. Emil Hoffmann and the ‘Jungle of the Secret Services’ (1934-1985),” he traces the biography of a German journalist and businessmen who was a Nazi propagandist in the Propaganda Ministry and the Foreign Office and worked after WWII first for the British MI6 service, despite having been active as a national revolutionary in the tradition of Gregor Strasser. After the British released him, he moved to the emerging field of East-West trade, and both the CIA and Soviet intelligence tried to recruit him. Beginning in 1956, the HV A tried to hire Hoffmann, giving up in the early 1960s, but finally managed to recruit him after his retirement in 1976. Selvage’s detailed and lucid analysis presents a story of shifting and unclear loyalties and commitments. Clearly, a Nazi past and active work for the West German New Right was no barrier to working for the HV A, and engagement for the other side, as Hoffmann’s case shows, made some people even more interesting for the intelligence services of the other. This deconstruction of the normative façade of intelligence services makes it clear that their analysis needs to be detailed and nuanced, focusing especially on their internal dynamics: ...

Below are excerpts from the fascinating study of Douglas Selvage:

On February 27, 1976, a routine summary of the Soviet press from the U.S. embassy in Moscow contained the following information item: Pravda reports from Vienna that “well-known West German publicist” Emil Hoffmann has sent to [the] embassies of CSCE signatories in that city a letter on “the illegal activities of radio stations Free Europe and Freedom [sic, Liberty].” Hoffmann says that the “subversive activity” of these stations “contradicts a basic principle of international law which is obligatory for all states — non-interference in the internal affairs of other states."

What Pravda failed to mention was that Emil Hoffmann was, in fact, a former member of the Nazis’ Sturmabteilung (SA) and one- time employee of Joseph Goebbels’s propaganda ministry. It also failed to report that Hoffmann had distributed the study on Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) at the behest of the East German Ministry for State Security (MfS, Stasi) — specifically, its foreign intelligence division, Hauptverwaltung A (HV A). What the U.S. embassy did not know and failed to report was that Hoffmann’s action constituted, to some extent, an act of personal revenge against the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), whose “terror” Hoffmann blamed for his loss of lucrative business deals in East-West trade and — from his perspective — his forced retirement as a journalist. Having worked for decades in East-West trade – the “jungle of the Secret services,” Hoffman called it – the former Nazi propagandist decided to moonlight in his retirement for the HV A.  

[H]offmann sparked renewed interest on the part of intelligence services, East and West, as he began a new career in East-West trade as a broker and journalist in 1949. From this point forward, Hoffmann posed a problem for intelligence services on both sides: Should they try to recruit him, arrest him, or simply keep him under “operational control”? They all agreed on the need to spy on him. The more attractive he became to one side as a potential target or agent, the more interesting he became to the other side. While Hoffmann, for his part, sought to avoid entrapment by the various intelligence agencies, he also sought to play upon their thirst for information for economic and journalistic benefits. If Hoffmann fell into the “jungle of intelligence agencies,” as he later wrote, it was a jungle with which he was quite familiar. Between 1949 and 1956, Hoffmann’s greatest fears in his erstwhile “jungle” were the CIA, which actively spied upon him, and the Stasi, which — he feared — might arrest him. 

Dr. Emil Hoffmann was born in 1911 and died in 1995. He was the author of West-Ost-Handel in Zwielicht (1955) and Mandat für Deutschland. Staatsfeind aus Verantwortung (1992).

To access and download only the Selvage article: 

Douglas Selvage is currently Project Director in the Education and Research Division of the BStU (Federal Commission for the Records of the State Security Service of the former German Democratic Republic) in Berlin for the project “International Cooperation of the East European Security Services.” Before he joined the BStU in 2008, he served as a historian in the U.S. Department of State and as an assistant professor of history at the Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach. He has published widely on German-Polish relations during the Cold War, on the Helsinki Process, U.S. foreign policy, and the history of the Soviet bloc.