September 26, 2014

Upcoming Conference on the Velvet Revolution in Cold War Czechoslovakia

RFE/RL, the Embassy of the Czech Republic and the Woodrow Wilson Center
invite you to a panel discussion on

Promoting Free Media:
Informing the 1989 Velvet Revolution and the Challenge Today

Thursday, October 16, 2014
2:00pm - 6:00pm

6th Floor Flom Auditorium
Wilson Center
Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center
One Woodrow Wilson Plaza
1300 Pennsylvania, Ave. NW
Washington, D.C. 20004


Czechs and Slovaks regained their freedom in November 1989 through non-violent protests in Prague, Bratislava, and other towns of then Czechoslovakia. Their Velvet Revolution climaxed a decade of renewed civic challenges to a repressive Communist regime that began with Charter 77 dissidents including Vaclav Havel and accelerated after 1986. Deprived of objective information about developments in their own country, Czechs and Slovaks turned to the Voice of America, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, and other Western broadcasters for information. Only through Western radio did they learn about accelerating challenges to Communist orthodoxy in Poland, Hungary, and the Soviet Union and about ferment in their own country.

Twenty five years after the Velvet Revolution, Europe today is whole and free, but democracy and prerequisite independent media are on the decline in much of the former Soviet Union and elsewhere. RFE/RL, now operating from Prague, VOA, Radio Free Asia, Middle East Broadcasting Network, and Radio Marti, all publicly funded by the U.S. Congress, work to redress the information deficit.

The first panel will review the contribution of Western broadcasting to the successful Velvet Revolution and consider lessons from that experience. A second panel will examine the challenge faced today by the United States in providing objective information to authoritarian countries and in applying principles of successful Cold War broadcasting to communicating with unfree societies.

Panel One – Western Broadcasting to Czechoslovakia

A. Ross Johnson
Wilson Center Senior Scholar (moderator)

Petr Gandalovic
Ambassador of the Czech Republic

Jiri Pehe
Director, New York University Prague Center (via Internet)

R. Eugene Parta
Former Chair, Conference of International Broadcasters Audience Research and former Director, RFE/RL Audience and Opinion Research

Pavel Pechacek
Former director, VOA Czechoslovak Service; former director, RFE/RL Czechoslovak and Czech Services

Alexandr Vondra
Former Deputy Prime Minister, Foreign Minister and Defense Minister of the Czech Republic; former Czech Ambassador to the U.S. (via Internet)

Panel Two – Promoting Free Media Today

Andrew Selee
Wilson Center Executive Vice President (moderator)

David Kramer
President, Freedom House

Kevin Klose
Professor, Merrill College of Journalism, University of Maryland

Nenad Pejic
Editor in Chief, RFE/RL

Mark Toner
Deputy Assistant Secretary for European and Eurasian Affairs, US Department of State

Kenneth Weinstein
President, Hudson Institute; member, Broadcasting Board of Governors

Reception to follow


August 31, 2014

Here is the program of the recent conference in Gdansk, Poland:

From Free Europe to Free Poland: Free Europe Committee in the Cold War

Friday, 5 September 2014

9:00-9:15 OPENING - at the University of Gdańsk
9:15-10:45 PANEL 1 - at the University of GdańskThe Role of the Émigrés in Early Cold War American Foreign Policy
Chair: Jakub Tyszkiewicz (University of Wrocław)

Panelists: Scott Lucas (University of Birmingham)
Anna Mazurkiewicz (University of Gdańsk)
Michael Warner (American University, Washington, former CIA History Staff)
Hugh Wilford (California State University, Long Beach)
11:15-12:45  PANEL 2 - at the University of GdańskThe Origins of the Free Europe Committee and the Launching of the Radio Free Europe
Chair: A. Ross Johnson (Woodrow Wilson Center and Hoover Institution, Washington/Stanford)

Panelists: Anna Bischof (University of Munich)
Pawel Machcewicz (Museum of the Second World War and and Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdansk/Warsaw)
András Mink (Open Society Archives, Budapest)
Ioana Macrea Toma (Open Society Archives, Budapest)                                 
13:00-14:00 Lunch Break hosted by Helena History Press
14:15-15:45 PANEL 3 - at the University of GdańskExile Support Programs of the Free Europe Committee
Chair: Katalin Kádár Lynn (Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest)

Panelists: Veronika Durin-Hornyik (University of Paris-East)
Jonathan H. L’Hommedieu (Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah)
Marius Petraru (California State University, Sacramento)
Francis Raška (Charles University, Prague)
16:15-18:45 PANEL 4 - at the University of GdańskFrom Leaflets to Books: The Printed Word Program of the FEC and Beyond
Chair: Władysław Bułhak (Institute of National Rememberance, Warsaw)

Panelists: Leonard Baldyga (former US Information Agency, Washington)
Małgorzata Choma-Jusińska (Institute of National Rememberance, Lublin)
Paweł Sowiński (Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw)
Eyewitness testimonies:
Mirosław Chojecki (independent publisher, film producer, Paris, Warsaw)
Robert Gillette (former LA Times correspondent in Moscow and Warsaw)
Andrzej Mietkowski  (Polish Radio Portal, Warsaw, former RFE))
Witold Pronobis (former RFE Polish Independent Press Unit)
Saturday, 6 September 2014
9:00-9:30 The Right to Know: Promoting Free Media in Central and Eastern Europe
Stephen D. Mull, US Ambassador to Poland
9:30-11:30 PANEL 5 – at the University of GdanskCrusade for Freedom: impact in America and behind the Iron Curtain
Chair: Giles Scott Smith (Leiden University)

Panelists: Richard Cummings (independent historian, Düsseldorf, former RFE/RL Director of Security)
Kenneth Osgood (Colorado School of Mines, Golden)
Richard Rowson (Council for a Community of Democracies, Washington, former FEC Director for Policy and Planning)
Prokop Tomek (Military History Institute, Prague)
12:00 – 13:00   PUBLIC LECTURE - at the University of Gdansk
Toomas Hendrik Ilves, President of Estonia 

14:30-18:00 Research Workshop (Meeting closed to general public – by invitation only)

The presentations and speech of President Ilves can be viewed in a Polish translation as a "live stream" at,Prezydent-Estonii-Rosja-jest-nieprzewidywalnym-rezimem-totalitarnym

August 21, 2014

August 1968 Invasion of Czechoslovakia

During the night of August 20-21, 1968, then Czechoslovakia was invaded by about 500,000 Warsaw Pact troops in "Operation Danube."  Radio Free Europe published a four-page Situation Report on August 21, 1968, which contained both factual information and Cold War rhetoric.
Here are two excerpts from that report:

Occupation of Czechoslovakia

At 0050 hours this morning, Radio Prague went on the air with the announcement that armed units of the Soviet Union,Poland, GDR, Hungary and Bulgaria had been moving into Czechoslovakia since about 2300 hours yesterday. Shortly before 0200 hours, Czechoslovak radio stations broadcast a declaration of the Party Presidium which stated that the border crossings were taking place with the knowledge of the President of the Republic, the National Assembly chairman, the Prime Minister, the First Party Secretary, or their respective organs. The Party Presidium called upon all citizens to maintain peace and quiet, and not to resist the advancing armed forces.  For this reason, neither the army, the police, or People’e militia had been ordered to defend the country.


The Soviet Union has secured for a time the Czechoslovak bridgehead and will probably attempt to rule it with the help of domestic quislings. On the other hand, the world-wide image of Communism has suffered irreparable damage. The brutal suppression of an experiment which was trying to unite a social system of nationalized means of production and distribution with a large measure of guaranteed personal freedom cannot but alienate left-wing opinion throughout the world. With the Soviet Union revealing itself unabashedly as an imperialist state, the concept of world revolution inevitably recedes into unreality.

Reportedly about 500 persons were wounded and 108 killed resisting the invasion. The occupation of Czechoslovakia lasted to 1991.

Dramatic photographs of what happened in Prague on August 21, 1968, were put up on RFE/RL's web page last year and can be viewed at 

The full Situation Report can be viewed and/or downloaded here:

"Situation Report: Czechoslovakia, 21 August 1968", 21 August 1968. HU OSA 300-8-47-57-27; Records of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Institute: Publications Department: Situation Reports; Open Society Archives at Central European University, Budapest:

July 18, 2014

"Rock-and-Roller" Kip Tyler, "That Bell of Freedom," and Radio Free Europe

In its September 12, 1964 issue, Billboard magazine reported:

Tyler Take to go to RFE

Hollywood -- Radio Free Europe will benefit from the donation of artist royalties by Kip Tyler from sales of his Gyro-Disc record of "That Bell of Freedom."

Bill Kennedy, label executive, told Billboard that considerable international interest has already been generated by the record. Tyler's manager, B.W. Garcin had his legal counsel work out the arrangements with Radio Free Europe for the acceptance of the donation of artist royalties.

The next month, Billboard carried a small advertisement for Kip Tyler that included a color photograph with this caption:

KIP TYLER, exciting young international singing sensation, currently hot with “That Bell of Freedom” on Gyro-Disc International. Radio Free Europe has accepted donation of Kip’s artist royalties.  Says Kip: ‘I’m humbly grateful that I can help, in small way, the cause of world freedom.”

Although both Kip Tyler and Radio Free Europe enjoyed the small publicity, there is no record of that donation’s amount as the record was not a commercial success.

Who was Kip Tyler?

Kip Tyler was the stage name for Elwood Westerton Smith, who was born in Chicago, Illinois on May 31, 1929.  In the 1950s, Kip Tyler was somewhat successful as a “rock-and-roll” singer, who also played the bongo drums, including for his band called “Kip Tyler and the Flips.” He became famous in California in the early 1960s for his live performances, although his records sales were not commercially significant. He also sang on the song track for various Hollywood movies. He joined the new record label Gyro Disc Hollywood in 1964 and recorded “That Bell of Freedom,” among other songs that did not sell nationally. By the end of the 1960s, Kip Tyler, who was never a commercial success, apparently, gave up his recording career. He died on September 23, 1996, in Los Angeles, California.

For more information, a short biography of Kip Tyler can be found here:

“That Bell of Freedom" can be hear on at

June 09, 2014

Isaac Patch, RIP

In my previous blog about the CIA and Radio Liberty's book distribution program, I wrote about the role Isaac Patch played as "Director of Special Projects" for the Radio Liberty Committee. He died on May 31, 2014, at age 101. The following obituary was written by Patricia Patch Critchlow, the niece of Isaac Patch:


Isaac Patch, who headed a CIA-sponsored program that infiltrated more than a million forbidden books into the Soviet Union at the height of the Cold War, died May 31 in St. Johnsbury, Vermont at the age of 101.

 Patch set up an entity called Bedford Publishing (not to be confused with other publishers using that name) that over a period of 14 years was able to get books into the hands of Soviet citizens. The books reached the Soviet Union in various ways.  Some were taken into the country by Western travelers as part of their personal luggage and then passed on to Soviet citizens.  In other cases, books were given to Soviet travelers to Western countries—engineers, teachers, artists, students, journalists--by people they met.

 Bedford Publishing operated from a head office in New York and branches in London, Paris, Munich and Rome. In addition to Western works in the original language, Patch’s outfit commissioned translations into Russian of some works that were considered especially important, such as George Orwells’s Animal Farm, James Joyce’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, or Saul Padover’s biography of Thomas Jefferson.  Russian-language works published in the West that were banned in the Soviet Union, like Boris Pasternak’s Nobel-winning Dr. Zhivago, were also delivered to Soviet citizens in a special compact format.

Prior to Bedford, the CIA had already been funding a book program for the Communist “satellite” countries of Eastern Europe, but it was held that it would be impossible to get books into the Soviet Union with its tighter border controls and population unreceptive to Western ideas. Patch, a softspoken Yankee from Gloucester, Massachusetts who had managed to befriend many Russians during service with the U.S. Embassy in Moscow during the relatively relaxed years of World War II co-operation, thought otherwise and was able to gain support for his project.

In his memoir “Closing the Circle,” Patch described a casual meeting with Svetlana Stalin, the dictator’s daughter, after her 1967 defection. She immediately recognized his name, saying “I know your name from a Russian friend who sends books via your Book Program.”

Bedford’s titles were not limited by any ideological criteria. The important task was to expand the intellectual horizons of Soviet citizens. In one case, a high Soviet official traveling in the U.S. requested from an American contact sixteen books on foreign policy. All of the books turned out to be anti-American, but the request was fulfilled without question. At least the point was made with Soviet citizens that in Western democracies, unlike the Soviet Union, you could publish books critical of the government.

Discharged for disability from the U.S. Navy early in World War II, Patch first learned Russian from a course at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  This gained him appointment to the Embassy in Moscow and the beginning of a career in the U.S. Foreign Service. One of his assignments in Moscow was to seek out titles in Russian book stores for shipment back to Washington, which gave him a good chance to get around town and meet with people.

Following Moscow, he was assigned to a small post in Dairen, Manchuria (now Dalian, China), territory where the Soviet military then held sway.  From there he went to the American Embassy in Prague in January 1949 as political attaché.  Only nine months later he and his family were given only 24 hours to leave the country on charges by the Czechoslovak communist government that he had committed “espionage.” Later, two of his Czech acquaintances were hanged. In his memoirs, Patch insisted that he had engaged only in routine political reporting.

Patch was predeceased by two wives and a daughter.  He leaves four children, five grandchildren, and six great grandchildren.

May 05, 2014

Code Name "Balthazar": Suspect Romanian Intelligence Agent at Radio Free Europe

On 5 May 1981, Bavarian State Police officers showed up at RFE/RL in Munich with an arrest warrant and a search warrant. A RFE/RL employee was arrested in her office on charges that she was a long-time agent of the Romanian Foreign Intelligence Service (DIE -- Departamentul de Informatii Externe). She was at the time employed as a secretary for the Director of the Central News Division. The Police searched her RFE office and her apartment for evidence.

Her husband, identified as DIE code name "Balthazar," worked for the U.S.Army in Ausburg also was arrested that day on suspicion of espionage.

These allegations stem from debriefings in the United States of Foreign Intelligence Director Lt. General Ion Pacepa, who had defected to the US in 1978. Pacepa was the highest ranking Romanian intelligence officer to defect to the West,

The US Government made some his information available to German authorities, but, for security reasons, the U.S. Government would not allow Pacepa to travel to Germany to give court testimony.

Both were eventually released from custody for lack of evidence. The assumption is that after Pacepa's defection, the DIE made a damage assessment and most, if not all, of the operations about which he would have known were put on hold, including those of "Balthazar" and his wife.

Without Pacepa, concrete evidence, or confirming statements from either of the suspects, German authorities could not prosecute the happy couple. She had started working at RFE in 1953 and, allegedly, supplied information about RFE to Bucharest for over 20 years. She terminated her employment after her arrest. "Balthazar" returned to his job with the U.S. Army and eventually retired.

A book was published in 1988 in the United States under Pacepa's name, Red Horizons, Chronicles of a Communist Spy Chief. This book is a direct and propaganda attack on Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu, but it does contains some germs of truth and the reasons for the arrest and search warrants.

According to Pacepa, after a clandestine meeting in Salzburg, Austria, perhaps in 1974, her Romanian Intelligence handler reported to Bucharest that she and her husband complained about working for over twenty years and not being any better off financially than when they started.  They asked for a monthly salary, money for each document, and a pension. She justified the increase in their payments:

She had two important pieces of news for us. For one thing, her husband's military unit had been given new military equipment, and he could photograph the documentation for it. Secondly, she had become the personal secretary of the central news division director for both Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, with access to their most confidential files. She said she could now provide their documents on not only Romania but also the Soviet Union and other bloc countries.

Her huge handbag was full of film cassettes. Here's a modest sample of what we can now bring you,' she said, according to the station report.... From Radio Free Europe she turned over some photocopies of letters received from Romania.  She claimed she could provide the whole archive containing many thousands of letters, as well as the ones received in the future.

According to Pacepa, Nicolae Ceausescu said, "That's exactly what I want, to identify all those criminals who write to Free Europe and put them behind bars."  

Pacepa then quotes Ceausescu

Could she plant a plastic bomb in her director's office?... She wouldn't need to know it was an explosive. She could very well think that it was just a file or a briefcase we were asking her to plant .... Have several remote-controlled plastic bombs made up. Plastic explosives disguised as thick file folders and books. That CIA wasp's next has long since surpassed the limits of Elena's and my patience. Clear?

Pacepa added,

Radio Free Europe has always been a top priority for Ceausescu because of its strong criticism of his government's human rights record. The ridiculous idea of using powerful bombs to scare the Romanian Department had, however, become an obsession with him only since the radio had begun making caustic remarks about his and Elena's personality cult

This obsession led to the bombing of RFE/RL by “Carlos the Jackal” in February 1981 and other hostile activity against both RFE/RL and its staff.

April 30, 2014

Silenced - The Writer Georgi Markov and the Umbrella Murder: U.S. Film Premiere May 4, 2014


Sunday, May 4 – 12:00pm noon
Director: Klaus Dexel
Producer: Klaus Dexel, Mo Dreher, Martin Ludwig, Alexander Donev
Genre: Historical Documentary
Duration: 92 minutes
Country: Germany
Language: German
Subtitles: English
5750 Wilshire Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90036
Tickets can be purchased at the door
$10 adult
$5 students, seniors, Friends of Goethe

Popular culture’s understanding of Cold War espionage as a lethal, high-tech business was seemingly confirmed by the incident this film explores: the 1978 assassination of the exiled Bulgarian writer and BBC commentator Georgi Markov, in broad daylight, on the Waterloo Bridge, London. Was the umbrella the murder weapon or was it merely a distraction that has lodged in the collective imagination?