May 27, 2016

CIA sponsored Russian émigré radio broadcasting in the early Cold War: NTS, and Radio Free Russia, Part One, Operation Radio

The history of the Russian émigré group NTS and the CIA basically remains clothed in a Cold War shroud of secrecy. But one can get glimpses from selected  declassified and released CIA documents. For this blog, we will look only at the setting up of the NTS-CIA clandestine radio station Radio Free Russia in Germany and Taiwan. CIA had a number of cryptonyms for NTS and operation programs. Among those were: AEROSOL, AESAURUS / AENOBLE, AEGIDEON / AENOBLE, QKDROOP, CARCASS, CABOCHE-1, PDGIDEON, and SHUBA-100.

NTS stands for Narodno Trudovoi Soyuz -- National Alliance of Russian Solidarists or National Labor Alliance” (In Russian: Национально Трудовой Союз, Народно-Трудовой Союз российских солидаристов). The initials NTS were also used for two patriotic slogans “Nesem tiranam smert” (We are bringing death to tyrants) and “Nesem trudiashimsia svobodu” (We are bringing liberty to the workers). 

NTS was founded in Belgrade, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, in 1928 (sometimes given at 1930) by a group of Russian exiles opposed to Soviet Communism. The ideology of NTS was basically anti-Communist as expressed in its 1967 English language pamphlet:

The NTS does not believe in opposing the Soviet regime by bomb-throwing, sabotage and assassination. For although there is an inevitable conflict between the aspirations of the people for freedom and the firm intention of the Communist rulers to keep themselves in power, with time these aspirations will express themselves irresistibly on a mass scale. The philosophy of NTS is fundamentally Christian: Man should be his brother's keeper; one has an obligation to help people who are suffering oppression. The flexible and undogmatic "ideology" of NTS is called Solidarism. 

Unlike Communism, Solidarism provides a twentieth-century basis for dealing with present day issues. It rejects a purely materialistic approach to social, economic and political problems. It postulates that man, rather than matter, is the chief problem today. It rejects the concept of class warfare and hatred, and seeks to replace this dubious principle with the idea of co-operation (solidarity), brotherhood, Christian tolerance and charity. Solidarism believes in the innate dignity of the individual and seeks to safeguard as inalienable rights his freedom of speech, conscience and political organization. Solidarists in no way claim that their ideas represent the final answer to all problems, but they believe that man who is master of the atom bomb must also become master of himself and his destiny.

But also the NTS ideology has been criticized as “anti-Western and anti-democratic. NTS has often been criticized for aligning itself with Nazi Germany in World War Two in the war against the USSR. After WWII, NTS set up its headquarters in Munich, Germany.

According to one declassified CIA document: “Initial contact between this agency and NTS took place in May 1950 through support of NTS's anti-Soviet newspaper, Possev, which is published 
in Germany and distributed both overtly in Western Germany and covertly in Eastern Germany among Red Army personnel. NTS was not aware at the time that funds were supplied by a U. S. government source. Upon further appraisal of the NTS's operational potential and organization, this agency decided to contact NTS to discuss support of its overt and covert activities … In February 1951, NTS began to broadcast "black propaganda" beamed at the Red Army in Eastern Germany and in the Satellites, from a station it owned and operated in the British Zone (station is now located in the U. S. Zone).”

Here is the summary of proposed NTS Plan, 9 April 1951, “Operation “Radio”

Problem: the preparation of opinion within Soviet territory facilitating the creation there of “molecules” of resistance, and direct contact with the revolutionary network net, both in the army of occupation and in the USSR proper.

1. Objectives.

Regular daily broadcasts of propaganda material and of concrete instructions to existing “molecules” of resistance.

2.  Implementation.
a.     Procurement of two ½ kilowatt transmitters, one each for Berlin and Austria.
b.     The development of radio-editorial work, which would include a station for monitoring of Soviet broadcasts, as well as a radio studio for the preparation of recordings for broadcasts.
c.     Establishment, as a part of the staff, of a Propaganda Branch, which would control the material being broadcasts.
d.     Study of the possibility of establishing a radio transmitter mounted on a sea-going vessel of small size.
e.     Establishment of camouflage necessary for the security of the various stations.
f.      Procurement of a 2 to 3 kilowatt mobile station.

The Sydney Morning Herald newspaper on Thursday, 27 December 1951, carried this article about NTS and Radio Free Russia by an unnamed "Special Correspondent:

Soviet Underground Grows in Europe

A strong “underground movement led by Russian emigres, is increasing the weight of Russian resistance to the Soviet police state. At the beginning of this year a new factor appeared in this struggle. N.T.S. established a mobile, unlicensed short-wave transmitter, “Free Russia.”

Each day it broadcasts anti-Communist propaganda in three languages: Russian, Ukrainian, and German. Being unrestrained by diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, unlike “The Voice of America,” NTS radio appeals to the Soviet Army and citizens to revolt. It sends out instructions on the organization of underground cells and their immediate tasks.

Soviet reaction was quick. The Soviet Ambassador in Vienna lodged a protest with the American authorities. The broadcasts of the radio station have ever since been jammed. To avoid this jamming, the station changes its wavelengths during the broadcasts, or transmits very close to those of the Soviet radio stations.
“Free Russia” also interferes in actual Soviet radio broadcasts. For example, a Soviet radio station, “Volga,” the other day concluded its news commentary on life in Eastern Germany with the words, “The People’s Democracy of Eastern Germany is strengthening daily.  Under the vigilant eye of the M.V.D.,” added the “voice” of “Free Russia.”

From the March 1952 NTS Operational Plan, included “Petva-8” that was submitted to the CIA:

         RADIO: This program called for the support of the present ½ kw
 station already in operation. In addition to this, support was asked for the construction of two other stations (1/2 kw) and one 2 kw station as well as mobile radio transmitters to be used along the border.

        We agreed that for all other operations, such as leaflet dissemination and clandestine radio activities, NTS would have responsibility for both effectiveness of operations and security; we would offer guidance and active assistance when we considered such to be necessary.

CIA funding was given to NTS to enlarge the radio broadcast system. Gordon Young in his 1959 book, The House of Secrets: Russian Resistance to the Soviet Union Today, describes the broadcasting operation of Radio Free Russia:

It was an idyllic scene that we encountered at last, in a peaceful apple orchard far out in the country. Under the shade of an apple tree a man in an open shirt was lying on an old mattress quietly smoking. (He was a relief technician waiting to go on duty.) Nearby was a plain fray-green fan from which came a series of noises, buzzes, and atmospheric walls. And standing by the wan gazing at the complicated radio dials and switches within was the inevitable small boy sucking a blade of grass. This was the control station, where the Free Russia emissions are received on two wave-lengths simultaneously with the Soviet jamming. Inside the van sat a massive Russian technician, a former Soviet Navy sailor, watching the radio dials and speaking on a radio-telephone to the mobile transmitting van; sending continual instructions for slight adjustments to the wave lengths to dodge the Soviet interference. “It’s not too bad this afternoon,” he told me, “but the jamming gets really ferocious later in the evenings.” Thanks to this van, the gift, I was told, of private American supporters of the NTS, the possibilities of efficient reception has been greatly increased. Some distance away from the van, under another apple tree, was the small electric generator providing the current for the van. No need any longer to rely on the primitive batteries with which the first transmitters were forced to operate and which always to ended to expire at critical moments.

The actual transmitting station we found about three miles away in the shadow of a farm -- two large lorries incongruously surround by an assortment of chickens, dogs, cows, and ripening tomatoes.

May 23, 2016

CIA sponsored Russian emigre radio broadcasting in the early Cold War: TsOPE (ЦОПЭ), Part Two

Fiscal Year 1960 Renewal Request

The current objective of the project is to use this organization 
to sponsor the production and distribution of written propaganda and for the conduct of PP (political and psychological) operations against the USSR and its nationals at home and abroad. The organization produces books, magazines, brochures, articles, leaflets, radio scripts and broadcast tapes and directs them toward the Soviet target.

The TsOPE agent at RNE (Radio Nacional de Espana) in Madrid got approximately 27 Russian scripts per month on the air, and he also supplied material for the Bulgarian, Estonian, and Latvian sections of RNE.

The natural cover provided by TSOPE’s status as a bona fide émigré organization, approved as a tax-free group by the West German Government, still applies

Fiscal Year 1961 Renewal Request

During the period 1 July 1959, through October 1960, the TsOPE Radio Section produced and forwarded 592 scripts to their Radio Rome contact and 649 scripts to their representative with Radio Nacional de Espana (an average of thirty-seven and forty scripts per month respectively). Seventy-two 15-minute radio programs were taped, sent to Taiwan, and transmitted over the Broadcast Corporation of China (BCC) facilities (approximately four a month). Of the scripts sent to Radio Rome, 297 were used, which, allowing for no reporting in two of the sixteen months involved, averages twenty-one per month.

Of the material furnished the TsOPE Madrid representative,

·      363
scripts were used by the Russian Section of RNE;
·      349 were translated and used by the Bulgarian Section;
·      96 by the Estonian Section;
·      7 by the Polish Section
·      7 by the Latvian Section
·      Twelve scripts were used as background by Russian Section members other than the TsOPE representative;
·      70 items were used in special Radio Espana broadcasts;
·      214 items were translated into Spanish and printed in the RNE foreign section bulletin; and
·      15 special programs were broadcast in the name of TsOPE
(one a month).
·      The TsOPE representative himself also made one broadcast.

In sum, the bulk of the Russian program of Radio Rome--outside of current news broadcasts--consists of TsOPE scripts and of other material derived from TsOPE periodicals and publications.

TsOPE RNE broadcasts are, according to the case officer, carefully conceived for the Soviet audience and directed toward specific objectives with definite principles; however, their effectiveness, the case officer adds, is limited by the inept content of most of the rest of the program. Both TsOPE representative and the Madrid Station are working toward the solution of this problem. 

Fiscal Year 1962 

The TsOPE Munich Radio Section produced approximately 1,000 scripts and 15-minute taped programs. The latter were broadcast by the BCC in Taiwan while the former served as a basis for approximately 21 broadcasts a month over Radio Rome and 50 Russia language broadcast monthly over Radio Madrid. At Radio Madrid much of the TaOPE material was also translated and used for broadcasts to Satellite countries.

In general, TsOPE’s contribution to Radio Rome and Radio Taiwan remained at the same level during FY 1961 as during FY 1960; however, an appreciable increase is noted in the amount of TsOPE material used at RNE. 

At RNE, however, the TsOPE Madrid Representative’s gradually increasing influence on the program content can be noted by the following figures on the radio’s use of TsOPE material:

                                                                                 FY1960           FY 1961

No. of Scripts sent from Munich to Madrid         489                  607
Russian Section Broadcasts                                277                  417
Bulgarian Section Broadcasts                             249                  350
Estonian Section Broadcasts                               81                   57
Polish Section Broadcasts                                   6                       6
Latvian Section Broadcasts                                 5                       2
TsOPE Broadcasts                                              12                    12
Items in RFE foreign section bulletin                 148                  292

At the moment, therefore, no serious or specific threat to the group's security is apparent. TsOPE operators, as members of an anti-communist émigré organization approved as a tax-free group
by the West German government, have a natural cover for their activities. CIA control of the organization is based on the group's complete financial dependence, but the witting members of TsOPE are, within their capabilities, willing and eager to accept all CIA guidance and help.

According to a June 1962 project review,  there were 305 TsOPE international members, with the majority in Germany (132), Belgium (97), USA (24), and Israel (19). There was an "affiliate" group in Sweden with 17 persons, who conducted anti-Soviet activities in Sweden. The objective of TsOPE's radio section was, "To collect and prepare anti-Soviet propaganda for broadcast to the Soviet Union, China and other countries in the Soviet orbit." 70-75 scripts per month were accepted by TsOPE "from a variety of authors all over the world." These scripts were edited, translated when necessary, and sent to Madrid, Rome, and Taiwan for broadcasting. 

Termination of the CIA-TsOPE broadcasts

AEVIRGIL and TsOPE operations were terminated in the summer 1963. The reasons for termination were:

[T]SOPE’s usefulness has been superseded by events and because the CIA personnel and resources allotted to its support could now be used more effectively in other forms of CA (Covert Action) activity. In the past decade TsOPE's leadership has grown old. As their years in the West increased, their understanding of and appeal to the Soviet man has inevitably decreased. Internal dissension has arisen within the group; strategic members
have resigned either under pressure or voluntarily; and there are no new, fresh members of the emigration who can be readily found to replace the old. Many of the group's activities have been curtailed by lack
of personnel, budget reductions during recent years, or simply, external circumstances…Radio Rome ceased broadcasting in Russia…A review of AEV1RGIL production as reflected in renewals of past years indicates that the project did justify its existence and did serve for almost a decade as a mainstay in the total SR/CA (Soviet Russia/Covert Action) effort.  

The final figures of radio broadcasts for fiscal year 1962 were: 
  • 240 broadcasts over Radio Rome (prior to the time Russian-language broadcasting was discontinued); 
  • 1613 broadcasts over Radio Madrid (in Russian, Bulgarian, Estonian and Polish) 

Next: Operation Radio: CIA, Russian emigre organization NTS, and clandestine radio broadcasts over Radio Free Russia.

May 16, 2016

CIA sponsored Russian emigre radio broadcasting in the early Cold War: TsOPE (ЦОПЭ), Part One

Introduction

By the early 1950s, the United States was broadcasting to the USSR (Soviet Union) in Russian by four different means: white, gray, black, and black/white.
·      White: Voice of America.
·      Gray: Radio Liberation (later Radio Liberty) in Munich (CIA)
·      Black (Clandestine): Nasha Rossiya (Our Russia) from Greece (CIA)
·      Black & White: CIA sponsored émigré broadcasts over Radio Nacional de Espana in Madrid, Radio Rome, and Nationalist Radio on Formosa (Broadcasting Corporation of China – BCC) (CIA)

Below are highlights from declassified CIA documents dealing with Russian language broadcasts from 1957 to 1963, through CIA created and controlled émigré organization Central Association of Post-War Émigrés (TsOPE – transliteration of 
ЦОПЭ -Центральное Объединение Послевоенных Эмигрантовwas created in November 1952, most likely a result of CIA’s frustration in the "labyrinthine maze" of uniting the alphabet soup of Russian émigré groups in Germany: Russian groups such as NTS, ODNR, ATSODNR, SAF, SVOD, SBONR, ROSS, RONDD, and VAZO. The name of the organization was changed in 1953 to Central Association of Political Emigres from the USSR-- Центральное объединение политических эмигрантов из СССР.

According to one declassified CIA document, "From 11 to 14 November 1952, the Central Union of Post-War Emigres held an organizational conference in Munich under covert CIA direction … Western press recognized the potentialities of this organization as an anti-communist weapon. The fact that VOA, BBC, and Radio Liberation made an unprecedented number of excellent tape recordings for radio broadcasts beamed to the Soviet Union is an indication of the psychological warfare potential of TsOPE."

TsOPE's first president was Grigory Klimov (CIA pseudonym: James N. Dussardie), a former Soviet army officer, who had defected to West Germany in 1947. In 1951 his book Berliner Kreml (The Kremlin of Berlin) was published in Germany and in 1953 the book was published in English as The Terror Machine: The Inside Story of the Soviet Administration in Germany.

According to another declassified document, "TsOPE was created and is being supported and controlled by CIA in order to develop and utilize some of the human resources in the Russian anti-Soviet emigration in support of CIA's political and psychological objective of accelerating evolutionary changes in the character and policy of the Soviet regime." 

TsOPE was used by the CIA not only for Foreign Intelligence (FI) operations, but also for Political and Psychological (PP) operations, including the launching of thousands of balloons and millions of propaganda leaflets from then West Berlin and Bavaria. For example, "From July 1959, to March 1960, between twelve and fifteen million leaflets a month were ballooned from West Germany to the Soviet Army concentration points in East Germany."  Ballooning ceased in March 1960, until then Tsope wrote, edited, and printed an average of six leaflets monthly.


At one point in the early Cold War, TsOPE members wrote and produced a weekly half-hour show over Voice of America in Munich entitled "Life in the Free West through Our Eyes." 


TsOPE was heavily involved in the printing and distribution of Boris Pasternak's novel Dr. Zhivago through mailings and personal contacts with Soviet visitors to the West. TsOPE also had chapters in Brussels, Paris, and Vienna.


Not much has been written about TsOPE but for this blog, I will only look at the radio broadcasts of TsOPE from Madrid, Rome, and Taiwan (Formosa) 1957-1963.

Request for Renewal Fiscal Year1958

CIA Project AEVIRGIL (1953-63) provided a controlled, anti-communist émigré organization for political and psychological activities against the Soviet target. The particular émigré organization, which was called the Central Association of Post-War Émigrés (TsOPE) and located in Munich,

·    Produced and disseminated Russian language leaflets and a monthly magazine (Svoboda).
·    Held propaganda meetings and press conferences.
·    Engaged in psychological warfare against the Soviet target.
·    Produced a weekly radio program over the Munich radio facilities of Voice of America.

With its new resources TsOPE hopes to play a larger role in other areas of the world. Particular reference
is made to the radio stations existing in such places as Madrid.

Fiscal Year 1959 Renewal Request

The Objective of project AEVIRGIL is to conserve, utilize and develop the human resources as constituted by the Russian emigration
in the West, in support of CIA's political and psychological efforts against the USSR. To this end the Central Association of Political Émigrés (TsOPE) … is being supported and controlled by CIA for exploitation as:

a)  A controlled organizational framework for Soviet émigrés,
b)  A rallying point for new Soviet defectors,
c)   An attributable source for the connect of PP operations against the USSR, its nationals and official representatives abroad,
d)  A controlled working group for the production and distribution of propaganda materials.

During the past year TsOPE has been active participation in
the Russian broadcast efforts of Radio Nacional de Espana, Radio Rome and Nationalist Radio on Formosa. Since initiation of these activities 62 15-minute TsOPE programs were broadcast over radio Formosa, 122 TsOPE scripts were broadcast over Radio Rome and 293 over Radio Nacional de Espana. In the latter case a TsOPE radio propagandist has been accepted
as a regular employee of Radio Nacional and CIA is able to transmit guidance to the radio through this controlled asset.

In addition to the scripts produced locally, TsOPE Munich transmits an average of 40 scripts a month to Madrid for broadcast over Radio Nacional. Radio Rome has used 122 15-minute TsOPE prepared programs TsOPE/Rome cooperation was started approximately eight months ago and 58 15-minute TsOPE prepared programs have been broadcast over Chinese Nationalist radio on Formosa.

Next: Part Two


May 14, 2016

CIA and Radio Nacional de Espana Covert Broadcasting to the Baltic States: A Cold War Symbiosis. Part Three: Lithuania

As we have seen in the previous blogs, CIA wanted to have Radio Free Europe broadcast to the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) in 1951 and that was approved by the U.S. State Department in May 1951 and again in August 1951. RFE started to plan for the broadcasts, including the selection of personnel for the broadcasts, but the US Department of State vetoed the idea in November 1951: "There is nothing that needs to be said to the Baltics that cannot be said quite adequately by Voice of America."

Voice of America broadcasts to Lithuania for the first time on February 16, 1951. CIA decided to coopt the broadcasts of the Lithuanian émigré group Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania (VLIKVyriausiasis Lietuvos išlaisvinimo komitetas) in Reutlgen, then West Germany. The cryptonym for this project was AECHAMP:

Below we will look at the CIA support of Lithuanian language broadcasts of Radio Nactonal de Espana in the early Cold War.

In CIA’s Summary Report, July 1, 1953, on AECHAMP PP (political and psychological) activities we read:

SR has been in continuous contact with the AECHAMP Organization since August 1949. Our collaboration with this national Lithuanian group was initiated primarily in the interest of FI (Foreign Intelligence) operations. Up to approximately nine months ago the PP value of the group remained largely dormant. The group prepared and signed two leaflets, which were dropped into LSSR in 1950 and 1951. It also published a few books of value in the English, French, German and Lithuanian languages, And prepared occasional materials for broadcasting into Iron Curtain territory over VOA, RFE And other available European facilities, but otherwise confined its work to political activity in connection with friendly governments and the Lithuanian community in the western world. Only since the turn of the year have AECHAMP PP activities assumed more serious proportions. Now they appear to be of great potential merit.

SR was CIA Soviet Russia Division. VLIK’S activities were listed in this report as:

a. The AECHAMPS were broadcasting to Iron Curtain areas in the Lithuanian language on seven-day weekly schedules over the following short wave facilities:

Radio Rome and Radio Vatican – 20 and 15 minutes daily respectively and 15 minutes daily over Radio Madrid. This time is available to the AECHAMPS free of charge. To Radio Vatican they pay an occasional subsidy of $100 to §200 of the own will.

b. Both on demand and at their own initiative they are supping texts, tapes, and   speakers to

·      VOA (Radio Center Munich and New York)
·      RFE Munich
 (Polish Section)
·      RIAS
 (Berlin)
·      Radio Stuttgart (Südwest Rundfunk)
·      NWDR Hamburg
·      Deutsche Well Köln
·      AFN (Armed Forces Radio)

The CIA cryptonym for the political and psychological operation involving Lithuania was added as AEPOLE. The February 19, 1954, document “Extension of AECHAMP (PP portion)” signed by Richard Helms in behalf of Frank G. Wisner, Deputy Director (Plans), included these objectives:

a.     To provide financial support for AEPOLE /1 – a leading émigré organization in Germany – in order to maintain that organization as an effective instrument of political and psychological warfare against the USSR.
b.     To deceive and confuse the Soviet Regime in Lithuania
c.     To maintain the morale and devotion to the West of the Lithuanian people.
d.     To preserve and support the spirit of resistance in the Lithuanian SSR.

Toward accomplishing the foregoing, this Agency is providing guidance, financial assistance and other forms of support to the leading Lithuanian émigré organization in Europe.

The émigré organization AEPOLE/1 was the Supreme Committee for Lithuanian Liberation (VLIK). The advisability of moving VLIK Headquarters to the US was discussed with officials of the U.S. Department of State. The CIA position was that the geographic location of VLIK was immaterial so long as it performed the functions required of it. 

The “situation” in 1954 listed in the extension request was:

The Regime of the USSR has controlled the former Republic of Lithuania with an iron hand since occupying and annexing the nation in June-July 194o. This control was broken only by the German occupation of the area during 1941-1944. The United States has not and, on the basis of the evidence of public and classified policy declarations, does not intend to recognize the legality of the Soviet absorption of Lithuania as a constituent "republic" of the USSR. While the Soviets have killed and deported a significant portion of the Lithuanian population, and many fled to the West in 1944- 1945, the great majority of those remaining in Lithuania today are nevertheless thoroughly anti-Soviet.

The policy of the United States is to seek the eventual liberation' of Lithuania by peaceful means. The objectives set forth above constitute covert implementation of this policy.

            Duration

(1) CIA association with and support of VLIK is viewed as a continuing activity and an integral part of cold war operations, so long VLIK continues to be a suitable instrument for the implementation of US cold war policy.

(2) The maintenance of our support personnel in assisting the PP effort is viewed as a continuing activity. In the event of open hostilities, the covert personnel will be used to support hot war operations.

The Chairman of VLIK and the members of VLIK’s Executive Committee were aware of US Government support. Funds are given to the Chairman of VLIK, who then transfered the money to the Lithuanian National Fund in Germany, which then handled all VLIK expenses. The members of the VLIK assembly in Germany only were aware that contributions to their fund come from a major Lithuanian organization in the U.S. and from other private and public Lithuanian sources.

Daily broadcasts to Lithuania over Radio Nacional de Espana began January 1, 1955. CIA realized that the new broadcasts required an expansion of VLIK’s “Radio Section” headquarters in Germany and the establishment of a “Radio Section” office in Madrid.

By 1955, VLIK maintained the following radio schedules to the target areas in Lithuania at the following days and times:

·      Radio Vatican, Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday, 14:00 – 14:15
·      Radio Vatican, Monday, Wednesday, and Saturday, 18:00 – 18:15
·      Radio Rome, daily 20:00 – 20;15
·      Radio Nacional de Espana, daily, 17:10 – 17:25

All of the programs were identified as the “Voice of the Supreme Committee for Liberation of Lithuania.” One analysis read:

In general the content of the radio programs is strongly anti-Communist. Their avowed purpose is to maintain the native 
traditions of the Lithuanian people in the face of enforced Sovietization. No attempt is made to accommodate the propaganda to operate within the framework of Communist indoctrination. The evidence available indicates that the Soviets have so far not made appreciable progress in eradicating Lithuanian traditions and the sense of Lithuanian nationality.

The main support of VLIK was based on CIA “subsidization of their PP effort… In addition, we are supporting the VLIK effort by sending proper guidance and material (in the original language or translated) for their broadcasts and other PP activities.”  CIA control of VLIK was through financial support with the possibility that it would be withdrawn if CIA determined that VLIK’s productivity did not warrant further support. The Head of Madrid Radio Station received an annual salary of $4,000 in FY 1956 and travel expenses of $1,200. CIA payments to VLIK from 1949 to the end of Fiscal Year 1955 amounted to $112,294. For fiscal 1955 VLIK has received CIA financial support in the amount of $39,404. Subsidies paid to Rome, Madrid, and Vatican amounted to $30,000 in fiscal year1956.

The possibility of moving VLIK Headquarters to the US was discussed with officials of the State Department. The CIA position was that the geographic location of VLIK was: “Immaterial so long as it performs the functions required of it.” VLIK would eventually move to New York.

In the Project Renewal for fiscal year 1957, two objectives of AEPOLE were, “To maintain the morale of the people of Lithuania, preserve and further stimulate their pro-Western attitudes and harass the Soviet regime in that country.”  CIA provided specific support and guidance for the organization's daily radio broadcasts from Radio Rome, Radio Vatican and Radio Madrid, RIAS, VOA, RFE (Polish Section), the publication of the organization's bulletin, and other PP activities which are consonant with U.S. objectives, which included:

a)     To preserve the national identify of the Lithuanian people thereby helping them to resist assimilation into the Soviet society.
b)    To maintain among the Lithuanian people an attitude of irreconcilability toward International Communism and the Soviet regime dominating Lithuania today.
c)     To maintain and enhance the pro-Western and pro-American orientation of the Lithuanian people.
d)    To encourage revisionist tendencies among the Lithuanian Communists.
e)     To foster evolutionary changes by encouraging the Lithuania people to seek continuous concessions from the Soviet regime in Lithuania.
f)     To contribute by all possible means to the growth of intellectual ferment among the Lithuanian people.

The “Operational mechanisms” of AEPOLE were: “Lithuanian section of Radio Madrid (Radio Nacional de Espana)” and “Supreme Committee for Lithuanian Liberation (a cover organization in New York, which sponsors the Lithuanian broadcasts from Radio Madrid.”

By 1958, two half hour radio programs were prepared in Washington and Munich respectively.

The fiscal year 1959 project action sheet for renewal of AEPOLE included these passages:

Objectives: Facilitate evolutionary changes with the USSR by exploiting the major changes occurring in the Soviet hierarchy – to this end increase popular demands for greater freedom, aggravate frictions between Soviet and Satellite parties and governments, and induce popular doubts as to the validity of communism. Disseminate facts and propaganda themes to the Soviet people inside the USSR through effective covert media, including radio; utilize selected émigré organizations for propaganda and political action.

The activities of AEPOLE were hampered by disunity within the Lithuanian emigration organization (VLIK), but this problem has now been satisfactorily resolved. SR Division is now working on improving the quality of the radio programs and also attempting to obtain truer evaluation of the effectiveness of the radio program. The potential of this activity is greater than we have utilized and should be developed qualitatively … AEPOLE should in no way be considered expendable but should receive concentrated attention both from headquarters and the field.

The significant operation was that radio broadcasts from Radio Nacional de Espana continued with a 15 minute original broadcast and a 15-minute repeat daily. It was planned to “improve the quality of Radio Madrid’s Lithuanian-language broadcasts in relation to US Government propaganda objectives…with a greater degree of cooperation by Radio Madrid Lithuanian personnel with their Estonian and Latvian counterparts, and through a new series of specific propaganda directives…”

The CIA decided to terminate AEPOLE in fiscal year 1964 and broadcasts over Radio Nacional de Espana to Lithuania ceased on October 31, 1963. The CIA’ Covert Action Staff decided against introducing Baltic broadcasts on Radio Free Europe or Radio Liberty, based on cost and policy factors

Radio liberty began broadcasting to Lithuania in 1975, before consolidation with Radio Free Europe as RFE/RL. Lithuanian broadcasts over RFE/RL and Voice of Amerca continued until 2004.

Next; CIA and Radio Nacional de Espana Covert Broadcasting to Russia in the early Cold War